Biblical Cosmology and the Christian Response to Neo-paganism

Our text is Romans 1:18-28.  Romans is the book of God’s courtroom.  It is the book of wrath revealed and righteousness revealed.  And the word ‘revealed’ is crucial—it means that if God hadn’t revealed it, you never would have figured it out on your own.  So it is wrath revealed and righteousness revealed.  Romans one tells us why sexual politics ground zero in the culture war that is raging between biblical Christianity and secular humanism.


Regarding our sermon title, cosmology is that branch of philosophy which deals with the origin and structure of the universe.  At the heart of biblical cosmology is the Creator-creature distinction.  Biblical cosmology includes the creation of male and female as the image of God (with the sub-themes of the dominion mandate; and biblical anthropology). 


Central to biblical cosmology is that God is Creator and ‘Definer’ of what He has made. As Creator He gives designations, definitions, categories and relations of what He has made.[i]  God’s defining role over His creation has established the creation structures of male and female and marriage and family.  These creation structures are foundational and ontologically real—they are at the core of your being (which is why social contract theory, sexual perversion, and abortion constitute a radical overturning of biblical cosmology).[ii] 


The absolute truth of cosmology is essential in interpreting the universe.[iii]  God’s relation to the creation is the ordering principle of the universe and of reality.  Because God is the sustainer and definer of all that He has made; there is no such thing as a reality greater than God—or a reality in which God is but a component (note this error in deism and pantheism).


Thus, biblical cosmology is the sole vantage point ‘high enough’ to provide the foundation for a unified cohesive worldview (the alternate is pluralism, diversity, and hopelessly fragmented knowledge).  Cosmology alone provides a wide angle lens broad enough to see man’s place in the universe.  Biblical cosmology is a totally unified ordering principle—without it, worldview has no foundation. 


Consequently biblical cosmology is the foundation of the gospel—for the gospel only makes sense in a world in which our omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent God is Creator, Owner, Upholder, Lawmaker, Ruler, Redeemer, and Judge.   The gospel has no point of contact in a world in which pagan cosmology has replaced biblical cosmology.  This is why there is an increasingly desperate need to define categories as God does—that He is Ruler, Sustainer, Owner of His creation—and that the designations and definitions He has made concerning His creation are absolutely essential for accurately interpreting reality.  


God has authoritatively set forth His ‘blueprint’ for His creation.  His blueprint, found in His Word, is not only our moral map; but also our ‘metaphysic.’  In other words, God’s relation to what He has made is our fixed point of reference which provides our understanding of the nature of reality (Ps 96).  Only by what God has said in His infallible Word do we know what is true, real, right and wrong.[iv]  


The Western world is undergoing a process of ‘paganization.’  Militant paganism has declared war on the church and the family.  As more and more Americans accept the humanist assumptions of society, the shift away from our Judeo-Christian roots will be reflected in government, business, law, education, religion, marriage, and family.


Like an immense wrecking ball, secular humanism has been moving through society for the better part of a century.  It has left destruction in its wake.  The ‘wrecking ball’ of naturalism has systematically broken down the boundaries set by God.  Philosophic naturalism (evolutionary theory) has so thoroughly permeated our culture—it has practically become our national worldview.  Students imbued with Darwinism find themselves metaphysically lost in a materialistic/chance universe without a fixed point of reference (75% of students are looking for the meaning of life).


The secularists have used the above philosophy of materialism to target the divine ‘blueprint’ given by God by which His creatures are to interpret the world, and order their lives and society.  Naturalism has been ‘shredding’ the divine blueprint.  Secularism views man as a biological machine and not the image of God.


Secular humanism’s assault has torn down God’s creation structures and it has left society craving a replacement.  Paganism offers itself as that new ordering principle. Naturalism’s denial of God’s creation structures has left an immense vacuum.  Paganism is proposing to put the world back together again (after postmodernity has deconstructed the world and emptied it of meaning).[v] 


Paganism is growing and thriving in the ‘seedbed’ left by secular humanism.  Paganism is rushing into the spiritual void left by secularism.  And, though paganism offers itself as a new comprehensive ordering principle; it still needs evolution in order to function (evolutionary theory is the pseudo-universal that drives paganism). 


Secularists want a ‘spiritual’ answer—but not from Christianity.  Paganism offers that spiritual answer.  In presenting its totalizing cosmology, paganism has gone to war against theism and the biblical truth of male and female as the image of God as standing in the way of its goal of global oneness.  In a sense, paganism is the ‘stepchild’ of secular humanism—it has germinated in the seedbed of secular humanism.       


This worldview ‘lens’ of paganism proposes a sweeping monistic vision—stressing the oneness of all things; the divinity of man and nature; and the goal of global harmony.  Paganism as a worldview presents a new view of the order of creation—a new way to view reality.   This is a patent denial of biblical cosmology.  It is a rejection of the Creator’s order.  The antithesis affirmed in Scripture demonstrates that paganism is not partly right—but is the very antithesis, or opposite of the truth.[vi] 


Biblical cosmology is expressed in the distinctions which God has made in creation.  We could say that God creates by ‘separating things’—heaven and earth; dry land and sea; animal and plant; day and night; good and evil; man and woman (Gen 1:4ff.).   


“Two-ness” is the very essence of biblical cosmology.  The creation structures formed by God are: male distinct from female; human distinct from animal; animal distinct from plant; etc.  These ‘binaries of two-ness’ constitute boundaries or divisions established by the Creator.  “These principles should not be seen and understood merely as primitive cosmology, but as stating a metaphysical principle and teaching a point that the universe has a moral base.”[vii]


In other words, there is a moral order built into the creation (there behaviors that are ‘against nature’).  “Human beings are only correctly understood in relationship to their Creator [and His moral government].”[viii]  As humans, our identity and purpose are inseparable from our designation as the very image of God.  Our rationality, worship, and morality are the direct expression of having been created in the image of God. 


Thus to be human is to be ‘mission-focused’—our identity as the image of God contains our ‘job description.’ We are to raise up God-fearing communities; we are to devote ourselves to marriage and family; we are to exercise the dominion mandate over the works of God’s hands.  Our identity and our calling as humans made in the image of God are inseparable.[ix] 


Paul begins the largest epistle on salvation (Romans) with an analysis of pagan thinking in a world that has lost biblical cosmology.  We need Paul’s analysis of the world because it is into this world that we must speak the Gospel. 


Paul tells us in Romans one that man’s rebellion (the same universal rebellion) is expressed in a three-fold way.  This rebellion is manifested in three areas:


CONCEPTUALLY (theology and the nature of God)


SPIRITUALLY (spirituality and the human response of worship)


BEHAVIOURLY (sexuality and the human response in corporeal behavior)




The first of these three expressions of rebellion leads to the next and so on.  In the realm of thought, suppression of the knowledge of God leads to sinful expression in the next area which is spirituality.  Spirituality then becomes the worship of the creation and the creature (nature) which leads to rebellion in the third area which is in behavior.  Wickedness is expressed in sexual immorality.[x] 


God’s response to man’s rebellion is wrath revealed.  God’s wrath revealed takes a very specific form.  God’s wrath is His righteous response to man’s wicked three “exchanges.” God’s wrath is expressed in three “givings over.”  Man exchanges in vv. 23, 25, 26.  God declares that He judges the three pagan exchanges by giving over in vv. 24, 26, 28.  They are given over in their minds, their spirits, and their bodies.


Paul’s use of definiteness (articular nouns) means that he has specificity in mind when he refers to the truth, the creature, the lie, the Creator.  Jesus said that when the devil speaks; he speaks “the” lie (Jn 8:44)—the lie spoken at the beginning in Eden.  Paul is speaking of the original lie manifesting itself in subsequent forms in human history.  Therefore Paul is referring to a specific denial of the truth when sinners suppress the truth of the knowledge of God. 


Paul’s focused language (with definite articles) narrows the religious options in the world to two possibilities: one either serves the truth or the lie.  In order to believe the truth, one must believe in God’s eternal power (His eternality), God’s divine nature (His utter transcendence—the fact that He is immortal and invisible—He is altogether ‘other’ and cannot be equated with anything in the creation—1 Timothy 1:17).  God is preexistent to matter.  The doctrine of creation ex nihilo is unknown in all other documents in the ancient world.[xi]


It is vital that we know this in our pluralistic society.  What appears to be countless spiritual options in the world with its syncretism, pluralism, diversity, and relativism, is really only two ways of being spiritual.  Our kids are hearing that there are hundreds of ways to be spiritual.  (To not retain the knowledge of God in one’s thoughts is to commit intellectual idolatry.  A wrong concept of God elicits God’s wrath on the individual.)


The wrath of God is revealed against those who suppress the truth of God in unrighteousness (v. 18).  God’s judgment (His wrath revealed) has different expressions in different ages in human history.  In today’s postmodern world whose center lies in the autonomous self—the net ‘yield’ is a bitter harvest of emptiness and moral disorder—vain and futile thinking (this is serious bad news! God allows society to unravel.)


What our postmodern world celebrates—namely its rejection of all absolutes, and its assumed right to define all reality privately—is actually a sign of God’s wrath (1:22). The postmodern definition of personal freedom does not change the fact that humans inescapably make moral judgments all day long (2:12-16). 


Therefore, what is revealed about God in Romans One is NOT that we can find Him on our own terms, or in our own way, NO, what is revealed is that He is wrathful toward those who suppress His clear self-revelation given in both general revelation (creation), and special revelation (the Word) (1:18-21).  His wrath is revealed in giving sinners over to futile thinking and immoral living. God reveals Himself as just; the whole world accountable and guilty (3:19). 


The revelation of God’s wrath spoken of in this context is not speaking primarily of future wrath; but the present reality of wrath.  The present reality of God’s wrath means that God’s anger is expressed in giving sinners over to their lusts and to a depraved mind.  (EX. Like a house perched high on a crumbling cliff—as God’s wrath is revealed, the moral fabric of society is permitted to erode away—moral sense, meaning, law, and order gradually tumble

to the rocks below. Men receive ‘the due penalty,’ ‘foolish thinking,’ and ‘darkened hearts.’)


God holds men responsible for how they treat general revelation.  How a man treats general revelation (God’s testimony in creation) will show up in how he treats special revelation (God’s testimony in Scripture).  All men are immersed in a virtual ‘sea’ of divine revelation (Ps 19).  Because God has made it evident ‘in them’, and ‘to them’, they are ‘without excuse’ (or without any rational ordered defense for their behavior). 


What are the categories of religious knowledge possessed by every unbeliever? Every natural man knows that he is created by God; that God is good; and that God will judge him someday.  And he also knows that God’s invisible attributes; eternal power; and divine nature are clearly seen—being understood through what has been made (1:19-21). 


The theological content of THE LIE is as follows: eliminate the truth that God deserves to be worshipped in thankfulness; overturn God’s order in the cosmos (the order which reveals God’s nature); replace God with another divinity—worship and serve the creature and the creation.  The pagan’s preference for the lie is what makes him a fool (v. 22). 


The central pillar which supports the truth of theism is Creator-creature distinction.  Once the fundamental pillar and pedestal of the truth is removed and lie is believed; any folly is possible.  If you lose the initial biblical cosmology, you lose everything.  Biblical cosmology is the bedrock of Christian faith and theism (Ex 15:2; Jer 10:14; Ps 96; Acts 17:24-29). 


The nature of true worship is inseparable from the Creator-creature distinction.  The wrong order (denial of the Creator-creature distinction) results in pagan spirituality.  In pagan spirituality, the nature of worship is overturned—the creature and the creation are worshipped.  Man loses his glory and dignity in the process.  He exchanges his glory for shame (v. 23). 


Our innate glory is due to the fact that we are made in God’s image (Gen 1:26).  God’s created order for us is that we rule over the works of His hands (Ps 8).  Paganism strips man of the dignity of his creation identity (Gen 1:27; Deut 15:6; Is 32:1; Eph 1:21).  Pagan cosmology reduces man to sameness with an animal—he becomes subjected to the creation.  In refusing to submit to the Creator he submits to created things (in practice he is debased—he loses his creation identity when he will not worship God). 


This loss of dignity and creation identity is typified in Israel’s apostasy in the matter of the golden calf (Ps 106:12-20).  What is shocking today is that nature worship, which is regarded as progress by paganism, has always been condemned by God as self-destructive folly. 


Pagan spirituality is radically pantheistic.  It denies the transcendence of God when it asserts that the universe cannot be explained by anything outside of itself.  For paganism, the cosmos is self-emergent, self-sustaining, self-fulfilling, self-interpreting, self-determining.  Modern pagans, even in lab coats, are looking to the animal kingdom to justify human sexual perversion.  If you worship nature, you lose your human dignity and descend to the level of an animal (EX. Note the Norwegian museum exhibit of homosexuality in the animal kingdom.) 


Paganism’s stance on sexuality is certainly an expose of its system of thought.  The worship of creation will include the worship of sex (a continual media event in the West).  What a testimony of divine inspiration that Paul begins the book of Romans with an explanation of the pagan worldview that underlies homosexuality.  Paul ties homosexuality to a theological reason—the exchange of the truth for the lie and the worship of the creation (v. 25).   


Paul is giving us a theological reason for illicit perversion—it is the overturning of the truth about the nature of the world.  Overturn the truth about God’s created order and you overturn the notion of God (you lose biblical theism).  God has written the knowledge of His glory into the nature of the creation (vv. 19-20). 


The lie (v. 25) will work itself out in sexual immorality—and in particular homosexuality.  Homosexuality is an overturning of God’s created order.  The worship of nature is a very unnatural way of living.  Ancient Sodom changed the order of the woman’s nature (v. 26).  It should not surprise us that a return of paganism in the public arena should be accompanied by homosexuality (and the homosexual agenda). 


Neo-pagans talk about their homosexuality as spiritual.  The homosexual priest of paganism destroys created distinctions and joins opposites.  “Androgyny is the sacrament of monism” (June Singer, a Jungian psychologist). 


How grateful we are to Paul to show us the nature of paganism and its moral consequences.  Paganism and theism are two mutually exclusive cosmologies.  Biblical theism finds monism idolatrous.  The ‘one-ism’ of monism cannot abide in the dualism of theism.  


The two systems (or cosmologies) are mutually exclusive.  Homo-theology emphasizes that everything has the same substance—it brings all to sameness.  Let’s look again at the three categories Paul addresses—truth (theology), worship (spirituality), and behavior (sexuality).   


HOMO-THEOLOGY stresses that nature and the divine are identified with each other (no distinction).  HOMO-SPIRITUALITY worships nature and the self (narcissistic praise of self).  It seeks a ‘spiritual’ goal of removing differences.  HOMOSEXUALITY is the most ‘natural’ thing if the above is true—it is the preferred sexual expression of pagan worldview. 


Homosexuality follows paganism everywhere (note its advocacy on university campuses where paganism is taught).  The homosexual agenda affirms that we all benefit from the breakdown of gender binary (the breakdown ‘liberates’ from stereotypes, patriarchy, oppression of women, and discrimination,). The homosexual agenda seeks to change our culture by destroying the notion of the image of God as male and female.   


By contrast (antithesis) the “Two-ness” of theism explains so much in the Christian faith.  Two-ism protects the Creator-creature distinction; dignity; personhood; hierarchy; stewardship; rationality; ethics; meaningful history; revelation; mediation; resurrection; God’s love; prayer; praise; Christian experience.  Two-ness upholds the immutability of the creation structures: God and man, male and female, man and animal, animal and plant, good and evil.


The created distinctions intrinsic in biblical cosmology may be expressed as follows:  HETERO-COSMOLOGY celebrates the Creator-creature distinction.  HETERO-SPIRITUALITY celebrates the otherness and transcendence of God which makes possible true worship and intimacy.  Nature and the creation give praise; and do not receive praise.  HETERO-SEXUALITY is union with difference.  It symbolizes the relation of God and the world and a love relationship with another person different from us.[xii]   


“The goal of paganism is the conjunction of opposites” (Peter Jones).  Paganism is built upon the fundamental oneness of all things (monism).  Under the pagan worldview, all is divine, all shares the same substance.   Under paganism the ‘two-ness’ of biblical worldview is overturned.  It is viewed as false to make distinctions if all is the same.  Paganism seeks to achieve spirituality by removing the distinctions which God has made.  Global spirituality seeks to obliterate the antithesis which exists between the truths of theism and pagan worldview. 


Pagan spirituality seeks to erase the distinctions between God and man; between man and animal; and between man and woman.  Perversion is the inevitable result—the Apostle Paul tells us in Romans chapter one that the overturning of created order will result in unnatural ways of living (Rom 1:24-27). 


The worship and serving of nature is man’s ‘default response’ and consequence of setting aside the knowledge of God and His created order.  To remove the distinctions between God and us is ultimately the same as no distinctions. In essence, human depravity is ‘hard-wired’ to nature worship.  We are created to worship, therefore the denial of God does not remove man’s worshipping nature—man will worship some aspect of the creation by default.[xiii] 


The breaking down of the gender binary (male-female) is central to the whole new vision for society—a vision which intends to usher in a new moral order with new laws and ethics.  The deconstruction of male and female lays the groundwork for a new morality in which laws are made to ‘prevent discrimination against alternative lifestyles.’ The pagan worldview rejects the created order substituting pagan cosmology in its place.  The outcome is a new set of ethics which enforces homosexual politics.[xiv]  When God is removed from ethics, laws can become vices (note the current forms of legislation in sexual politics).               


In pagan spirituality, the male-female distinction is erased making homosexuality appear ‘natural’ within that worldview.  As pagan spirituality is applied everywhere, Christianity will increasingly be regarded as the adversary of progress.  Because of the male-female binary aspects central to biblical cosmology; Christianity is regarded as the single greatest threat to public acceptance of homosexuality.[xv] 


Paganism’s ‘free ride’ into our generation is proof that post-Christian Westerners have released their grip upon the transcendence of God (cosmology).  The resultant ‘spirituality,’ divorced from the transcendent God of Scripture, is rushing in like a flood.  Pagan spirituality needs a ‘blank’ god.  In the pagan concept of immanence, God is everywhere and everything so He becomes no one and nothing.  By contrast, real spirituality comes from real immanence—from Immanuel, ‘God with us’—solely in the incarnation and the work of the Spirit.[xvi] 


Christian college students are often ‘mute’ when it comes to engaging our culture.    

“One of the reasons the mouths of our college kids are often closed in their public witness is because they are intimidated by the politically correct, diversity-inclusivistic ideology of the academy. Students are ‘brainwashed’ into a survivalist mode of, ‘Can’t we just get along?’ with its implicit appeal to intolerant oneness.”[xvii] 


Our Christian students are in trouble because they cannot make the truth they believe ‘speak’ to this culture.[xviii]  They lack the training necessary to see the total relevance of God’s truth to all of life.  Liberal educators who have embraced the pagan cosmology have ‘framed the issues’ of the day within their pagan worldview.  As a consequence, Christian students are regularly intimidated by their professors.   As a result, Christian kids tend to keep their convictions private, or they blend with the world.  Unfortunately, the latter choice is the most common one; but it doesn’t have to be that way.  Through training in biblical worldview our young people can be equipped for effective Christian apologetics and evangelism. 


Regarding the need to equip our university students, Peter Jones says,


Christian college students for the most part are unable to mount a convincing critique of the erroneous worldviews on campus, and they are unable to give a theological defense of the Gospel.  You cannot take on the enemy of paganism that surrounds us if you ignore the categories that identify it—religious categories by which it must be forced to make its public case.  Understanding those categories will help Christians find their minds and voices.[xix]


Liberal educators (having embraced the pagan cosmology) have ‘framed the issues’ of the day within the categories of their pagan worldview.  Consequently, we are in a serious crisis of discourse.  The political left has told us that we cannot think outside their box—therefore they always win the argument.  What is needed is a more incisive way for Christians to talk about the issues.  Believers need clear categories.  They need to see through the lens of antithesis—that there are two totally antithetical systems (theism and paganism).  Both claim to be the truth about reality.  This approach is incredibly helpful to students.


What appears to be countless spiritual options in the world with its syncretism, pluralism, diversity, and relativism, is really on two ways of being spiritual.  Our kids are hearing that there are hundreds of ways to be spiritual.  But the lie beneath all false religious options is more unified than we have imagined.   There are only two religious options vying for hearts and minds.


Biblical cosmology plays a central role in equip our apologetic strategy. Biblical cosmology lets us as believers ‘frame the issues.’  God the ‘Definer’ gives us the correct categories to define our world and to engage our world.  The categories given by our Creator are necessary in order to deconstruct paganism.  Because students are weak ideologically and theologically; it is imperative that we, as Christian leaders, equip them to define categories as God does.  We must cast the battle as a collision between monism and theism; between biblical cosmology and pagan cosmology.[xx]


Romans one is the key—for in that chapter Paul tells us how the pagan world puts itself together.  Our college and high school kids need these categories in order to open closed mouths.  The purpose of studying paganism opens our understanding in how to do evangelism in the antithetical sense.  In defining the truth, we define the lie the world is presenting against the truth.  We use paganism to define the clear boundary outside of the truth (antithesis). 


The biblical approach has always been to compare (two) worldviews: biblical and pagan.  “. . .walk no longer as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind. . .” (Eph 4:17).  Don’t think and walk as the pagan thinks and walks.  Eschew the incoherent way that pagans think.                 


Biblical cosmology offers and preaches antithesis in a world of synthesis.  Only biblical cosmology is theologically robust enough to expose and oppose the march of neo-paganism.  If we are to check the advance of neo-paganism, the ‘cosmology bomb’ has to hit.  Our wedge point or fulcrum is cosmology.  It supports the lever by which we tip over the idols of pagan ideology which are seeking to capture our culture. 


Our job as Christian leaders is to provide students with the cosmological and theological categories necessary to enable them to stand against the prevailing errors of our day.   We are standing at a crossroads in church history.  We must ‘world-proof’ our kids to avoid sending them like lambs into the wolf packs which populate the academy.  Only by providing a full-orbed theology which puts antithesis into bold relief will we give them back their voice.[xxi]


Central to our strategy is to not only set up the contrast between pagan and biblical cosmology—but we must also show the consequences of each worldview.  The dire consequences of pagan worldview are catalogued by Paul in Romans chapter one.  Those who subscribe to pagan worldview are judged by God.  They experience three areas of being given over—they are: given over in their minds; given over in their spirits; given over in their bodies.[xxii] 


By contrast Christ as Lord of the cosmos and Lord of the Church is truth and life incarnate.  “. . . [He] abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” (2 Tim 1:10b).  He is sovereign over all knowledge—in His ‘epistemic lordship,’ Christ answers, and delivers from, by His own Person, every version of ‘the lie’ (Rom 1:25).  He reconciles to God.  Thus, at the center of Christian worldview is Christ the ‘Savior of the World.”[xxiii]



Our strategy in exposing and answering neo-paganism involves contextualizing our message—by this we mean that our proclamation of God’s truth is joined to a critical reflection upon our culture.  We seek to cast the battle as the fight between biblical and pagan cosmology. It is by means of God’s ordering principle (cosmology) that we may equip the saints to answer the paganism of the academy—we do so by proclaiming the biblical answer to monism. 


Christo-centric biblical theism operates by antithesis.  It penetrates the syncretistic world of inconsistent ideas and false spiritualities.  The cosmology of biblical worldview is the weapon capable of piercing and dismantling the fortifications of paganism which are raised up against the knowledge of God. 


We preach the glorious gospel against the black backdrop of the human condition.  Our culture sits under the settled anger of God’s wrath.  Human bondage to sin is complicated by darkened thinking.  In His wrath, God leaves men to a depraved mind, to absurd thinking and to moral disorder.  But wonder of wonders, God is not only revealing His wrath; He is revealing His righteousness.  In the gospel message we discover that God is making friends of His enemies.  He is freely giving His righteousness to former rebels.  He has given His Son and not withheld Him (8:32, paradoken—same Grk. word as ‘given over’ in Romans one).  And in the giving of His Son to die on Calvary’s cross, Christ Jesus has absorbed into His own Person the very wrath that sinners justly deserve. 


The gospel unfolds the altogether different love of God.  In redemption, God takes His own wrath on Himself.  He loves so much that He breaks down our sinful human hearts by His love and compassion.  He brings His righteousness near (Is 46:12-13).  He clothes us with His righteousness (Is 61:10). 



[i] Dave Doveton, “Paganism in the Church” (Escondido, CA: Christian Witness to a Pagan Planet, think-tank, 2007).

[ii] Jay Wegter, “Worldview, Apologetics, and Evangelism, BCW363A” (Newhall: The Master’s College, 2007).

[iii] Dave Doveton.

[iv] Jay Wegter, “Worldview.”

[v] Peter Jones, “Forms of Paganism” (Escondido, CA: Christian Witness to a Pagan Planet, think-tank, 2007).

[vi] Ibid.

[vii] Emil Brunner in Dave Doveton, “The Pagan Deconstruction of a Biblical Worldview,” p. 3.

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Jeffrey Ventrella, “

[x] Peter Jones, “Framing the Issues; Finding our Voices” (Escondido, CA: Christian Witness to a Pagan Planet, think-tank, 2007).

[xi] Peter Jones

[xii] Peter Jones

[xiii] Ibid.

[xiv] Dave Doveton, “Paganism in the Church.”

[xv] Ibid.

[xvi] Ted Hamilton, “How does the Gospel Preach in a Culture of Paganism” (Escondido, CA: Christian Witness to a Pagan Planet, think-tank, 2007).

[xvii] Peter Jones.

[xviii] John Stone, “On the Cause of Christian College Students being Mute” (Newhall: The Master’s College, 2007).

[xix] Ibid.

[xx] Peter Jones.

[xxi] Peter Jones.

[xxii] Ibid.

[xxiii] Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, The Saviour of the World (Cherry Hill: Mack Publishing Co., r.p. 1972).